In the studies by Golembiewski et al. Group discussions usually provided the source of data and at the same time a method of developing the project tasks. The participatory process was least effective where this was unsuccessful. Hurrell and Murphy suggest that workplace interventions fall into three categories: There is evidence that the Halbesleben et al. This review of studies that report successful interventions sought to identify what might be learned from them, with the aim of clarifying a PAR design that might increase the likelihood of improving stress management in the workplace.
The timescale for an intervention to have a confirmative impact is difficult to ascertain. PAR provides scope to engage managers as participants. No information on response rate et al. Self-reported surveys featured in 8 of the 11 studies. Conflict and resistance generated by hierarchy and an inequality of power are the most difficult obstacles to overcome if collaborative forums are to be effective Fricke, This seemed less problematic for short-term pragmatic outcomes, such as a support group and self-management pack for returnees to work for NHS staff Munn-Giddings et al. With the systems approach, translation of research findings into actions is a significant barrier, and empowering staff and their participation is a key factor e.
A total of 32 scales were used across the studies, either selected from those already available 18 different scales across all studies; see Table III or designed specifically for the purpose of andreew study three studieswhile three studies also referred to staff or management records for data on absenteeism or turnover.
Data collection methods will also have to capture evidence despite variable response rates due to staff turnover, and a wider application of qualitative methods used to effect in two of the studies; Gold, ; Boivie et al.
One emergent theme from the review is the importance of limiting study ambitions to fit available time and resources, and so reduce the risk of disappointing results, although this potentially may challenge the credibility of the PAR approach if it restricts the extent of participation Mikkelsen and Gundersen, The variety of settings suggests that the economic sector and nature of business are not important factors when selecting a site for participative research into workplace ni.
Organizational interventions are targeted at most but not all of these sources, and their effectiveness is likely to be limited, at least in the short to medium term.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
In all, 23 papers related to PAR outside the workplace. Specific but important problems should be targeted, and evaluation of local issues, rather than presumptive ones, is an essential part of the assessment process. Participatory action research PARa form of action research that explicitly has a high nutsing of participant engagement in International Journal of Workplace part or strese of the research process, specifically embraces the principle of empowerment Health Management Vol.
These usually drew on the findings from earlier phases of the study and 6,1 informed the next stage, such as a wider consultation phase or implementation phase.
Nature of stress targeted and the participatory process. Evaluation Studies were longitudinal in design, providing a before-after evaluation of the intervention.
Whilst specifically Workplace stress related to stress research, the focus was more concerned with community interventions development or public health than with workplace stress management, and so the papers were rejected. The study by Halbesleben et al.
No information on response rate et al. The study by Heaney et al. Designs are complex, but PAR provides the means of resolving critical issues of stakeholder engagement, including managers, and of ensuring a reliable evaluation strategy.
Social lead researcher and senior UK healthcare organization and a services: In contrast, the study by Boivie et al. In general, most studies lasted at least 18 months.
Workplace stress in nursing: a literature review.
Three either did not apply survey tools Gold, ; Boivie et al. A recurring theme from this review is the need for the researcher and organization to invest considerable time, effort and resources to ensure fully mcvicr collaboration between stakeholder representatives.
Sample A total of 57 papers were identified as potentially having apparent but variable relevance to the aim of the review: However, Bond and Bunce identify that wider, far-reaching changes may have to be introduced over a longer term to have an impact. An initial analysis of the value to this study was made by one of the authors PSand the decision ratified in discussion with the other two.
Although mainly positive, some studies also reported some negative outcomes.
Contributory factors to collaborative involvement include a presence of a social climate of learning, the provision of opportunities for multi-level participation in the design of interventions, awareness of tacit behaviours that may be undermining, and definition of roles and responsibilities Nytro et al.
Intervention study on psychosocial work factors and mental health and musculoskeletal outcomes. Recent trends suggest that psychosocial interventions are increasingly being applied Lamontagne et al.
nursjng Formulation of action plans, and implementation plans, are common features, with dissemination of change throughout either part of the organization or 28 all of it, mediated by a Steering Group of stakeholders including managers.
Some were linked to the notion of a learning organization and explored the benefits of that but not specifically in the context of stress management; many were also outside the selected timeframe. The aim of the present study therefore was to elucidate the characteristics of successful collaborative interventions through a review of empirical studies that specifically, and successfully, applied a PAR approach to stress management.
By Louise Hamelin Brabant.
The most commonly steess scale was the Maslach Burnout Inventory three studies. Engaging the workforce at every level, and especially at senior management level, is a time-intensive process that has to be maintained. Surveys were used to identify, or to start identifying, the problems to be addressed, and to provide an evaluation by self-reported assessment of the workplace before, during and after an intervention. Thus, vulnerability to job-related stress seems to relate to a complex mix of social gradient, job control, effort-reward imbalance, social support and health behaviours Lunt et al.